Anal gland disease is a common problem in dogs and cats. The anal glands, also called 'anal sacs,' can become impacted, infected and abscessed. Affected pets may lick the anal area, "scoot" along the floor, or have problems with defecation. This article will help you better understand anal glands.
Location and function of anal glands
As the dog or cat is viewed from behind, anal glands (also called anal sacs) are located on each side of and slightly below the anal opening, at the 4 o'clock and 8 o'clock positions. A tiny duct or tube leads under the skin to an opening directly beside the anus.
All predators, whether they are canines or felines in the wild or skunks in your backyard, have anal glands. They just use them differently. Skunks discharge the secretion from these glands as a form of defense, while dogs use it primarily for territorial marking or as a form of communication. In dogs and cats, every time a stool is passed, it should put enough pressure on the anal glands that some of the secretion is deposited on the surface of the stool.
Diseases of the anal glands
Anal gland impactions, infections and abscesses can occur. Here is how: For various reasons, such as the conformation of the animals, the thickness of the gland's secretions or the softness of the stool, these glands and their ducts often become clogged, or 'impacted.' When this occurs, the animal will sit down on its rear quarters and drag its anal area across the floor or ground. This is called 'scooting.' Both dogs and cats may lick the anal area excessively. Impacted anal glands are a very, very common problem for dogs, especially the smaller breeds.
Anal glands may also become infected and abscess. Bacteria make their way into the glands, probably through the ducts. This is a very painful condition, and the first sign you may see is that the animal attempts to bite or scratch when you touch the area near the tail.
Treatment and prevention
When the glands become impacted, a veterinarian, groomer, or the pet's owner must clean them out, or 'express' them. This empties the glands of all material. It is done by applying pressure with the finger, start below the gland and then pushing upwards. In some dogs this needs to be done every week or two.
Impacted glands do not affect the overall health of the pet. The problem is that pets may injure the anal area when scooting across the ground, or discharge the secretion on the carpet or floor and this material has a terrible odor.
Anal gland abscesses must be treated by a veterinarian, and antibiotics are usually given to the following an abscess. Using warm compresses on the area often helps to relieve some of the pain and reduce swelling.
If an individual pet only has an occasional problem with the gland, they can be dealt with as needed. However, for pets with repeated or chronic problems, surgical removal of the glands is recommended. With the removal of these glands all problems associated with these glands are eliminated for the remainder of the pet's life. Although a fairly simple procedure, complications such as fecal incontinence can rarely occur.
Pets with recurrent anal gland impactions are often placed on a high fiber diet or supplements to help glands express naturally. These make the animal's stool more bulky. The stool will put more pressure on the anal glands and hopefully the glands will express themselves when the animal defecates. Adding a spoonful of bran cereal to your pet's daily diet can help with recurrent anal gland problems.